Tuesday, 9 October 2012

DD3000 DESIGN FUTURES #3: Research #1- Dolly and Cloning in the News

Ok, first research post! I'm basically just going to share some of the information I've gathered for this module. The stuff I'm posting today is mostly news reports regarding Dolly and the subject of cloning. I could post more, but frankly there's a lot and I can't really be arsed right now...
I'll probably post it later this week...

Just to point out, none of this information belongs to me. It's merely stuff I've gathered for my project and is only here to show what I've looked at. All the info listed below belongs to it's respective owners
Also, we're using the APA referencing system, so I'm going to be listed the reference first, then the article beneath it. I'm not including images though, at least not for this module.

So, here's a small portion of my research material:

BBC News, (22 February 1997). 1997: Dolly the Sheep is cloned. Retrieved from BBC News website http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/22/newsid_4245000/4245877.stm

1997: Dolly the sheep is cloned

Scientists in Scotland have announced the birth of the world's first successfully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep.
Dolly, who was created at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, was actually born on 5 July 1996 although her arrival has only just been revealed.
Dolly is the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Previous clonings have been from embryo cells.
The sheep's birth has been heralded as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of the decade although it is likely to spark ethical controversy.
Scientists in Scotland cloned a ewe by inserting DNA from a single sheep cell into an egg and implanted it in a surrogate mother.
They now have a healthy seven-month-old sheep - Dolly - who is an exact genetic duplicate of the animal from which the single cell was taken.
DNA tests have revealed that Dolly is identical to the ewe who donated the udder cell and is unrelated to the surrogate mother.

Embryologist Dr Ian Wilmut, from the Roslin Institute, said: "It will enable us to study genetic diseases for which there is presently no cure and track down the mechanisms that are involved."
The research, published in Nature magazine, follows the Edinburgh team's success in cloning sheep embryos. Last year they produced two identical sheep, which were clones of an original embryo.
The company which has bought the rights to the research, PPL Therapeutics, said Dolly would help to improve understanding of ageing and genetics and lead to the production of cheaper medicines.
US President Bill Clinton has set up a special task force to investigate cloning in order to examine the legal and ethical implications.

BBC News (Friday, 14 February, 2003). Dolly the sheep dies young. Retrieved from BBC News website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2764039.stm

Dolly the sheep clone dies young

Dolly the sheep, who became famous as the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, has died.
The news was confirmed on Friday by the Roslin Institute, the Scottish research centre which created her.
A decision was taken to "euthanase" six-year-old Dolly after a veterinary examination showed that she had a progressive lung disease, the institute said in a statement.
She was not old - by sheep standards - to have been put down
Dr Patrick Dixon, expert on ethics of human cloning
Dolly became the first mammal clone when she was born on 5 July 1996.
She was revealed to the public the following year.

Dr Harry Griffin, from the institute, said: "Sheep can live to 11 or 12 years of age and lung infections are common in older sheep, particularly those housed inside.
"A full post-mortem is being conducted and we will report any significant findings"
Dolly was a sheep created totally by design - even her name was picked specifically to be appealing.
It came about during the latter stages of labour when Dolly was born.
Stockmen involved in the delivery thought of the fact that the cell used came from a mammary gland and arrived at Dolly Parton, the country and western singer.

Cloning row
Her birth was only announced seven months later and was heralded as one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of the decade.
But it also prompted a long-running argument over the ethics of cloning, reaching further levels with the latest allegations of human cloning.
Dolly, a Finn Dorset, bred normally on two occasions with a Welsh mountain ram called David.
She first gave birth to Bonnie in April 1998 and then to three more lambs in 1999.
But in January last year her condition caused concern when she was diagnosed with a form of arthritis.

Museum piece
The condition would usually be expected in older animals and another debate erupted over what could properly be judged as Dolly's true age, and the risks of premature ageing in clones.
Professor Ian Wilmut, who led the team that created her, said at the time that the arthritis showed their cloning techniques were "inefficient" and needed more work.
Dr Patrick Dixon, a writer on the ethics of human cloning, said the nature of Dolly's death would have a huge impact on possibility of producing a cloned human baby.
He said: "The real issue is what Dolly died from, and whether it was linked to premature ageing," he said.
"She was not old - by sheep standards - to have been put down."

'Profound effects'
Speaking to BBC News 24 on Friday, Prof Wilmut said Dolly's birth should be the important issue.
"The fact that we were able to produce an animal from the cell of another adult - it had profound effects on biological research and in medicine."
Professor Richard Gardner, chair of the Royal Society working group on stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, said: "We must await the results of the post-mortem on Dolly in order to assess whether her relatively premature death was in any way connected with the fact that she was a clone.
"If there is a link, it will provide further evidence of the dangers inherent in reproductive cloning and the irresponsibility of anybody who is trying to extend such work to humans."
Dolly has been promised to the National Museum of Scotland and will be put on display in Edinburgh in due course.

The Telegraph, (30 November 2010). Dolly the Sheep 'reborn' as four new clones created. Retrieved from The Telegraph website: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/8169817/Dolly-the-Sheep-reborn-as-four-new-clones-created.html

Dolly the Sheep 'reborn' as four new clones created
Four clones of Dolly the Sheep have been made by the scientist behind the original genetic research, it has been reported.

8:30AM GMT 30 Nov 2010
The quads, nicknamed “The Dollies”, are said to be exact genetic copies of their predecessor, who was put down seven years ago.
Dolly was plagued by health problems and suffered from premature arthritis. She was put down in 2003 after contracting lung disease.
“Dolly is alive and well. Genetically these are Dolly,” Professor Keith Campbell, who keeps the Dollies as pets on land at Nottingham University, told the Daily Mail.
“They have got the life of Reilly – they potter around and get fed.
“We are not doing anything to them, they have no health concerns and they show none of the signs of developing the arthritis that Dolly had.”
The professor, who plans to publish details about the Dollies in a scientific journal, said the health of the clones was being closely watched.
He said the latest experiments were carried out to investigate whether improvements to the technique could cut the risk of problems in and out of the womb.
The arrival of Dolly was a landmark in genetic technology, demonstrating that scientists could reverse cellular time by converting an adult sheep's cell into an embryo, which was then grown into a new sheep.
Her birth prompted a fierce debate about the ethics and ramifications of cloning, with one writer claiming that Dolly "looks at you with those intense red eyes – eyes full of hate".
The ethical arguments against animal cloning were strengthened by the ill health that forced her to be put down.

Knight, W. (2003, 14 February). Dolly the Sheep dies young. Retrieved from New Scientist Website: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young.html

Dolly the sheep dies young

Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down on Friday afternoon, after developing a progressive lung disease.
Dolly's birth six-and-a-half years' ago caused a sensation around the world. But as many sheep live to twice this age, her death will refuel the intense debate over the health and life expectancy of cloned animals.
The type of lung disease Dolly developed is most common in older sheep. And in January 2002, it was revealed that Dolly had developed arthritis prematurely. She was cloned using a cell taken from a healthy six-year-old sheep, and was born on 5 July 1996 at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Institute's Harry Griffin says: "Sheep can live to 11 or 12 years of age. A full post mortem is being conducted and we will report any significant findings". Following the post mortem, Dolly will be donated to the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, where she will be stuffed and put on display.

Short telomeres
Some cloned mammals, including Dolly, have shorter telomeres than other animals of the same age. Telomeres are pieces of DNA that protect the ends of chromosomes. They shorten as cells divide and are therefore considered a measure of ageing in cells.

The only study of cloned mammals that have lived long enough to determine any effect on lifespan revealed that the mice involved died prematurely. The research was conducted at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, Japan, and published in February 2002. Other cloned animals appear normal and healthy, for example the 24 calf clones created by US cloning company Advanced Cell Technology, but these have yet to live long enough to draw any conclusions.

On 2 February 2003, Australia's first cloned sheep died unexpectedly at the age of two years and 10 months. The cause of death is unknown and the carcass was quickly cremated, as it was decomposing.

BBC News’ Science/Nature Division (2002). Cloning humans: Can it really be done? Retrieved from BBC News website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1211136.stm

Cloning humans: Can it really be done?
Claims by a controversial company linked to a UFO sect that it has produced the world's first cloned human baby have been greeted with scepticism and calls for the process to be outlawed.
Our science editor, Dr David Whitehouse, answers some questions about cloning and whether the technology can be made to work in humans.

Q. How would it be done?
A. The model is Dolly the sheep and although the technology has been applied to several animals, it is still highly underdeveloped and the mechanisms involved are poorly understood.
The scientists would remove the DNA from the nucleus of an egg cell taken from the mother. This DNA would then be replaced by the genetic material taken from one of the father's cells (or as in this case, the mother herself) - perhaps a skin cell. A trigger would be applied to the egg cell that would then make it start to divide like any normal embryo. The mother would have it implanted in her womb in a procedure which is routinely performed in IVF clinics.
Q. So, what are the dangers?
A. Experience with the five mammal species that have been cloned so far indicates that there would be almost no chance of success.
The vast majority of pregnancies involving clones have gone very badly. In most of them, the clone has died and in almost all of them the lives of the mother and clone have been put at risk.
In many cases, the clone grows abnormally large, often threatening to tear the womb that can also become swollen with fluid. Almost all clone pregnancies spontaneously abort.
Dolly the sheep, the first mammal clone, was the one success in 247 pregnancies. If a human clone is produced, the cost in human suffering and the trail of failures will be large.
Q. What if a human clone is born?
A. Of the small number (little more than 1%) of animal clones that make it to term, most have severe abnormalities: malfunctioning livers, abnormal blood vessels and heart problems, underdeveloped lungs, diabetes, immune system deficiencies and possibly hidden genetic defects. Several cow clones had head deformities - none survived very long.
It would be fair to say that experts are amazed in the few instances that cloning has worked.
Q. Is it possible to choose healthy embryos for cloning?
A. Screening for suitable embryos will not work. Normal babies are made from the joining of genes from sperm and egg. Genes are "imprinted" - a poorly understood process that avoids any genetic confusion between similar maternal and paternal genes. There is evidence that in clones this imprinting does not work properly. There is no way to screen any embryo to detect this problem.
Q. What will happen if a clone grows up?
A. We know very little about the long-term health of clones. There is some evidence that they may not live as long as conventional humans and may have health problems. Studies are ongoing.
Q. Would the child be an exact copy of the genetic parent?
A. Not if the donor genetic material comes from a man or from another woman. On the genetic level, the clone would be 99.9% identical to its parent, but it would not be a complete copy because there are some important genes that would be contributed by the egg donor. These genes reside outside the nucleus.
Also, the clone would be subject to different environmental factors and a different upbringing to his/her genetic parent. This could result in a changed appearance and personality. If the recent research on the human genome has taught us anything, it is that we are far more than just our genes.
Q. But isn't all of this illegal anyway?
A. In most countries that carry out advanced biomedical research it is. In less developed countries, including some that offer test-tube baby programmes, there are no laws against it.
Just taking the UK as an example, there is now a specific law to ban the placing of any embryo in a woman's womb that is not created by a fertilisation process.
This was introduced a year ago.
All embryo research in Britain require a licence and you simply would not get one if you said you wanted to make human clones.
But remember, all of this is quite separate to therapeutic cloning. This is a more limited use of the Dolly technology to obtain important cells which could yield novel therapies for degenerative diseases.

Ok, that should be enough for now. I've got a boatload more, so I'll definitely post some more later.

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